Four of the five 2008 Booker Prize judges (l-r): Michael Portillo, James Heneage, Louise Doughty and Hardeep Singh Kohli. Photograph: Shaun Curry/AFP/Getty Images
In fiction, Berlin's famous distinction between hedgehogs and foxes, drawn from the pithy fragment attributed to the classical poet Archilochus ("The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing") remains influential. Hedgehogs, in Berlin's celebrated essay, see the world through the lens of one big, defining idea. They include Plato, Dante, Proust and Nietzsche. Foxes, who scour the landscape, drawing on a wide variety of experience and are indefatigably averse to a single explanatory idea, include Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, James Joyce and, dare I say, Salman Rushdie.